To anyone having to do something with immunity studies, the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, will sound really familiar. The NF-kB is a protein complex deputed to initiate the transcriptional response to external stimuli, such as stress, citokines, antigens, bacteria, free radicals or UV light irradiation. Expressed in active B cells, it is the protagonist of the immune response at molecular level.

For quite a long time, its evolutionary characterization has been rather neglected, since no homologous sequence is found. Actually, I often happen to realize that biomedical studies tend to keep quite far from evolutionary approach. Biomedicine is about to understand processes happening here and now, and it often aims to quickly find a reliable therapeutic approach for the disease of subject. So many factors to study, so little time. This shifts biomedical studies away from the influence of evolutionary biology. A real pity, as Catriona MacCallum  pointed out on PLoS Biology in 2007, since the contribution of evolutionary biology to biomedicine has a big, almost unexplored potential.

Recently, NF-kB and NF-kB-like proteins have been discovered in “basal” marine animals and non-metazoans, allowing the study of the early evolution of this nuclear complex of extraordinary importance for human health. John R. Finnerty and Thomas D. Gilmore from the University of Boston published an interesting paper on this topic just a few months ago, and I dare to introduce it here for two main reasons.

Beyond the clear scientific interest of their work, representing one of the few and really valuable evolutionary approaches to an all-biomedical subject, and highlighting deep conservation and repeated instances of parallel evolution in the sequence and structure of NF-κB in distant animal groups, which suggest that important functional constraints limit the evolution of this protein, it also provides an explanation of how to easily apply phylogenetic and bioinformatic approaches even without a previous hard training.

The authors run on the double track of reporting a scientific result, and introducing the reader to some simple (but still effective) computational tools that more or less anyone may use to implement phylogenetics in his/her work, rendering Methods for Analyzing the Evolutionary Relationship of NF-κB Proteins Using Free, Web-Driven Bioinformatics and Phylogenetic Tools a very interesting reading for both bionformaticians who need to communicate with experimentalists, and people working with NF-kB.

The article is part of the methodological book NF-kappaB. Methods and Protocols edited by Michael J. May and published by Springer Protocols.

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